Vampires

vampires

2. Juni Willkommen auf der Übersichtsseite von Hollywood Vampires bei hembakningsradet.nu Falls es keine aktuellen Events geben sollte, können Sie sich. Die Musicaldarstellerinnen und -darsteller Christoph Apfelbeck, Charles Kreische, Floor Krijnen und Anja Wendzel präsentieren an diesem Abend eine. Ein Vampir (/ˈvampiːr/ oder / vamˈpiːr/; veraltet auch Vampyr) ist im Volksglauben und in Das „Blutsaugen“ der Vampire gehört nicht zu den im Volksglauben in erster Linie überlieferten Elementen, wichtiger ist das Verlassen des Grabes.

This spell made it possible to kill an Original without killing their sirelings in the process. This spell only ended up being partially successful, as Elijah was revived in time to escape the effects of the spell, while Klaus was unable to do so.

This resulted in every vampire he or his progeny has ever sired to be free of their connection to Klaus, which means that he can be killed without the rest of them dying as well.

This spell was foretold in a prophecy experienced by the witch and Seer Alexis regarding the possible deaths of the Originals, though it did not go exactly as the prophecy suggested.

As a result of these events, only Rebekah's sireline is still linked to Rebekah, making every existing vampire is either from Rebekah's linked or Klaus' unlinked bloodline.

During the late s in what was then the Kingdom of Norway, a Viking family composed of the powerful witch Esther , her husband Mikael , and their young sons Finn and Elijah abandoned their homeland due to the plague that was sweeping through Europe at the time that had supposedly killed their eldest daughter, Freya.

With the help of Esther's friend and mentor, another powerful witch named Ayana , the family decided to set sail for the New World, which they had heard was populated with many healthy and strong people whom they would later learn were werewolves.

Once they arrived, they settled in a village that would eventually became modern-day Mystic Falls , Virginia, and gave birth to four more children: Niklaus , Kol , Rebekah , and Henrik.

However, at the very beginning of the 11th century, their family once again was stricken by the loss of one of their children when their youngest son Henrik was accidentally killed on a full moon after he and Klaus sneaked out of their home to watch the men from their village transform into wolves.

Devastated by their son's death, Mikael eventually convinced Esther that they needed to protect their family using an adapted version of Silas and Qetsiyah 's immortality spell , which they were sure would make them more powerful than the werewolves.

Though the two begged Ayana for her help, she refused, as she believed that Nature would turn against them for causing such an imbalance of power, and that what they were planning would start a plague of their own.

Despite being warned of the consequences, Esther proceeded with their plan and asked Tatia , a Petrova doppelgänger and the object of both her sons Elijah and Klaus ' affections, for a small amount of her blood to be used in the ritual.

Esther then cast the immortality spell on Tatia's blood, calling upon the sun for life and the eternal White Oak Tree for immortality , before slipping the blood into the wine her children and Mikael drank at dinner that night.

Afterward, Mikael stabbed each of his children through the heart with his sword to kill them before presumably turning his blade on himself.

When the Mikaelson children awakened, Mikael forced them to feed on the blood of a girl from their village, turning the six of them into the first immortal beings to exist since Silas and Amara became truly immortal in the 1st century BC, as well as the first known vampires to ever exist.

Though Silas and Amara subsisted on blood to maintain their immortality just like vampires, Silas has insisted on many occasions that vampires are merely "disgusting perversions" of himself and Amara and that they are actually immortals.

Rebekah later described her first taste of human blood as euphoric, and after they all completed their transitions into vampires, Rebekah, her father, and her siblings all inherited supernatural speed , strength , agility , senses , healing , and an array of psionic powers such as mind compulsion and telepathy upon their transformation, though they didn't gain control of the latter powers until much later in their eternal lives.

However, as Ayana predicted, Nature was furious that one of their witch servants disrupted its balance using their magical gifts, and so, to counter this imbalance, it created a weakness for every strength the Originals had gained through the dark magic, which were then inherited by the Originals' vampire offspring as well, sometimes in even more potent forms than their progenitors.

The sun, which gave them life, burned them and kept them indoors until Esther came up with a magical protection amulet for it though the sun wasn't fatal to the Originals, it did severely burn them, and the creation of their weaker progeny later revealed that sunlight was fatal to them ; the wood of the white oak tree that gave them their immortality was also the one substance that could kill them if they were stabbed in the heart with it and their progeny would be vulnerable to all wood used in this manner ; vervain , which grew at the base of the white oak tree, also burned and weakened them and their progeny if they touched or ingested it, and humans who ingested or carried it on them were protected from the vampires' powers of compulsion ; and finally, they were unable to enter the homes of humans without an explicit invitation by the owner of the domicile.

Worst of all, they developed an overwhelming hunger for human blood that only intensified after their first taste, a side-effect that none of them predicted when Esther cast the spell.

As Ayana expected, the creation of the Original vampires eventually led to the start of a "plague" in after the Originals inadvertently learned they could turn humans into more of their kind by feeding them their blood and killing them, which caused the population of vampires to multiply in increasing numbers over the centuries following the species' creation.

However, the progeny of the Original vampires soon proved to be much weaker than their sires, even those who were closest to them in age, giving the Originals a high status that demanded respect from their younger sired vampires.

After being turned, the Original vampires became slaves to their bloodlust and their heightened emotions. When one of the Mikaelsons, Niklaus , killed for the first time, he discovered that he, unlike the rest of his siblings, was also a werewolf due to being a product of his mother Esther's affair with the North East Atlantic Pack 's Alpha , Ansel , making Niklaus the world's first hybrid when his werewolf and vampire natures combined.

Mikael , furious at the discovery that Niklaus was not his child, forced his wife to suppress Niklaus's werewolf side an order that was also given to Esther by the forces of Nature before finding and killing her lover, Ansel , a powerful werewolf Alpha.

The deaths of Ansel and at least half of his family at the hands of the new vampires turned the werewolves against the new race.

After their father's rampage, Klaus, furious at his mother's betrayal and hurt that she would turn her back on him, killed her when he lost control of his werewolf anger and then blamed it on Mikael so his siblings wouldn't abandon him as well.

Knowing that Mikael would hunt them down and kill them, the five vampire Mikaelson children left the New World for Europe, where they eventually settled in Marseilles in , living in the woods and feeding upon the humans they came upon on back roads.

After the five of them realized they had fed on and killed four noblemen and a noblewoman, they figured out that their victims had been headed to the Court of Marseilles and decided to take on their identities and hide in plain sight from their father, giving them the opportunity to actually live in a home rather than squatting wherever they could find shelter.

With the help of the Count de Martel's servant, Lucien Castle , who offered to help them by teaching them the customs of French nobility and royalty in exchange for the Mikaelsons sparing his life, the Mikaelson children went to the Count de Martel 's castle and introduced themselves as the children of the Count de Guise before being invited to stay as guests in the Count de Martel's castle.

Once there, they settled into their new lives of comfort as noblemen and made friends with those at court, including the Count's children Tristan and Aurora de Martel , the latter of whom was the object of both Klaus' and Lucien's affections.

It was shortly after they had come to stay at the Marseilles court when they realized they could heal humans with their blood; this fact was made apparently after they found Lucien had been viciously tortured by Tristan, who mistakenly believed Lucien had made amorous advances toward Aurora though, in reality, it had actually been Klaus.

After Tristan whipped Lucien's back dozens of times and sliced his mouth open from ear to ear, Lucien angrily stabbed Klaus with a knife and caused the vampire's blood to drip into his own wounds, healing them completely as the blood circulated through his system.

Incorrectly assuming that he had been turned into a vampire like Klaus, Lucien went to attack Tristan in revenge for being tortured by him and was promptly killed by the lord's guards.

Klaus tried to feed him more blood to heal him, leading Elijah to presume that their blood only healed the living. However, once Klaus and Elijah prepared to give Lucien a traditional Viking funeral, Lucien awakened in transition as the first non-Original vampire to exist in the world, as well as the first vampire progeny to be created with Klaus' blood.

Lucien then completed his transition by feeding on a servant and joined the Mikaelsons as vampires at court. Not to be outdone, Aurora, after learning of Klaus' secret, begged Klaus to turn her as well so that she, who was dealing with melancholy and other mental illness, would be strong and healthy like them, but he refused, not wanting to curse Aurora to his fate.

Knowing she would never be able to convince him to turn her, she slit her own wrists in a mock suicide attempt, tricking Rebekah into healing her wounds by feeding her vampire blood.

She then tried to get Rebekah to kill her to turn her, as well, but when Rebekah refused for the same reasons Klaus did, Aurora angrily asked her to leave.

Having what she needed to turn herself, Aurora walked over to the window of her tower and allowed herself to fall off of the ledge, killing herself and transforming herself into the second non-Original vampire and Rebekah's first progeny.

Unfortunately, in time, rumors started to spread in the village about demons who fed on blood as a result of the seven vampires' feeding habits, and it soon became clear that Mikael would be coming after them.

In the middle of a heated argument between Aurora and Elijah in which Aurora confessed that Klaus had killed Esther, Elijah accidentally and unintentionally used mind compulsion for the first time to cause her to see Klaus as a monster and to stay behind rather than trying to flee with them.

Before the Mikaelsons left court, Elijah, who had gotten the hang of compulsion and could now use it intentionally, fed Tristan his blood and killed him, making him his own first vampire progeny.

He then compelled Lucien, Aurora, and Tristan to believe that they were Niklaus, Rebekah, and himself before forcing them to flee the castle, allowing them to be the bait that Mikael chased while the real Mikaelsons traveled on to Italy and settled in Tuscany.

Lucien, Tristan, and Aurora, who eventually became known as The Trinity , believed that they were actually Klaus, Elijah and Rebekah for over a century, until Elijah being daggered for the first time in caused their compulsion to be broken.

Though they then knew their true identities, Mikael continued to chase after them, causing the three younger vampires to become incredibly resentful toward the Mikaelsons, which is what eventually pushed them to search the world for weapons they could use to destroy their sires.

The growth of the vampire race led to several attempts to end them before they grew too powerful. One attempt involved a witch descended from the powerful Qetsiyah who created an order of five magically-enhanced vampire hunters called the Brotherhood of the Five to hunt down and destroy the vampires and the immortals on Earth.

They began hunting vampires in Italy during the early 12th century as the Normans conquered southern Europe. However, they attempted to defeat the Originals with White Oak Ash Daggers created by the witch who empowered them, not knowing that Klaus' werewolf heritage made him immune to weapons made of silver.

This allowed Klaus to kill all of the hunters and undagger all of his siblings, with the exception of Finn, who he hated for his self-loathing attitude toward vampirism.

However, the spell that empowered the hunters did not die with them—instead, several new hunters emerged during the following centuries with the same powers and dedication of the first.

Several freelance and often ordinary human Vampire Hunters also began to appear as a result of the vampires' amoral actions, and various weapons were created to use against them, such as stake -shooting guns and vervain grenades, as technology began to improve throughout the ages.

At some point, the initial conflict between the vampires and the werewolves emerged once again when the vampires discovered that a bite from a transformed werewolf was fatal to them though a werewolf bite proved to not kill the Originals, who would only become feverish and delirious with hallucinations for several hours until they healed.

Determined to protect themselves, the vampires declared war on the werewolves and drove them to near extinction. Several packs survived but, by the early s, most vampires believed that werewolves were merely a myth.

During the 18th century, the Mikaelson children returned to America after moving back to Europe for several hundred years, and ended up arriving at the shore of the penal colony that would later become New Orleans , where they began the process of building it into one of the major cities of the United States.

For centuries, this human faction would ensure the safety of New Orleans's human population from the vampires and deal with and often cover up the various supernatural events that occurred as a result of the tension between the various groups.

As this new law would mean an increase in federal presence which could not only expose the supernatural community in the city, but also draw their father, the Original vampire who had become a Vampire Hunter known as Mikael the Destroyer and intended on killing killing his children, the Mikaelsons proposed that the Guerrera Pack , a werewolf crime family, could smuggle their alcohol into the city via the ports that Klaus and Elijah owned and act as the public face of the ports while the brothers maintained control behind the scenes, which would benefit both families and the town at large.

The Originals managed to flee, distraught due to their incorrect assumption that Marcel had been killed, but Mikael chased after them, leaving New Orleans in shambles.

Marcel, the former self-appointed king of the French Quarter's vampire as well as witch population. After the destruction wrought by Mikael, Marcel remained in New Orleans, where he eventually gained leadership of the vampire community and began making moves to take control of the city at large.

Once the vampires were in a dominant position, they began enacting their plans to gain more power, including an intense attack on the Guerrera Pack that resulted in all but one of them being killed in Later, in the s, Marcel attempted to form a truce with members of the Labonair Family , who were highly revered members of the Crescent Wolf Pack , but after his Labonair ally and his wife were killed by former Crescent Alpha Richard Xavier Dumas to prevent the truce, the vampires took advantage of the divided clan and waged a war against them that they ultimately won in retribution for ruining their peace talks.

After the werewolves' defeat, Marcel exiled the rest of the werewolf community from New Orleans, forcing them to live in encampments deep in the Bayou.

He even went so far as to curse all triggered werewolves in the Crescent Wolf Clan with a spell that reversed their werewolf nature, trapping them in their wolf bodies full-time and only allowing them to return to their human form during the peak hours of the full moon.

Shortly afterward, Marcel sent away the surviving baby daughter of his late Labonair allies with Father Kieran , the priest at St.

Anne's Church and leader of the human faction, ensuring that the girl found an adoptive family out of loyalty to her parents.

Afterward, Marcel and Father Kieran made a deal regarding their respective communities: Under Marcel's leadership, New Orleans became a major supernatural melting pot where vampires could have a good time without being forced to live in the shadows like many of their brethren in other areas of the world.

He also established a hierarchy within the vampire community to keep his army motivated; his "inner circle" of close friends and loyal soldiers, known as " daywalkers ", were gifted with daylight rings that would allow them to be active in the daytime, whereas the rest of the vampires, known as the "nightwalkers," remained nocturnal and were relegated to patrolling the town after sunset.

However, nightwalkers were given some opportunities to work their way up to a ring of their own, such as winning in Marcel's occasional "Fight Nights" or going above and beyond their duties as a soldier in Marcel's vampire army.

However, as the vampire population continued to grow and their influence began to spread even farther as they gained more power, the community found themselves in an intense war with the French Quarter Coven , who harbored hatred toward the vampires and, like many witches, believed them to be abominations of Nature.

Despite Father Kieran's best efforts to maintain the peace between the communities, the tensions continued to rise. When Father Kieran found out that the ritual demanded the sacrifice of four young women, he vehemently denounced the plans during a meeting with the coven's Elders.

After Sean ultimately succumbed to the hex by massacring his fellow seminary students before killing himself, Kieran left town out of grief, but not before meeting with Marcel and urging him to stop the Harvest by any means necessary.

Unfortunately, Marcel and his vampires arrived to the cemetery where the ritual was being performed too late, and by the time they made their attack, the elders had already sacrificed three of the four girls.

However, they were still able to kill most of the witches in attendance and save the sole surviving Harvest girl , Davina Claire.

Since the Harvest was incomplete, all of the magic of the three girls who were sacrificed before she was rescued, which was meant to be an offering to the earth and their ancestors who resided on the Ancestral Plane , was transferred to her, making her the most powerful witch in New Orleans and granting her with the ability to sense when any of the other New Orleans witches were performing magic.

Wanting to protect her while still benefiting from her abilities, Marcel took Davina in and became her guardian , and Davina, furious at the witches for lying to her and betraying her and her friends by killing them, used her powers to help Marcel and the vampires enforce his new rule: With the witches essentially powerless in subjugation and the werewolves exiled from the city, the vampire community became the uncontested dominant faction in New Orleans, which allowed Marcel to proclaim himself to be king of the city.

However, Marcel killed her before he could question her, and Klaus became so suspicious of Marcel's motives for killing her that he and his brother Elijah followed the trail of clues to Jane-Anne's sister , Sophie.

They met in Lafayette Cemetery , where Sophie admitted to the brothers that the witches, led by Sophie and the late Jane-Anne, were planning an uprising against Marcel and had lured Klaus to New Orleans to gain his help in infiltrating Marcel's empire with the hopes of bringing it down from within.

As leverage, they brought out the werewolf Hayley Marshall , whom they had discovered was miraculously impregnated with Klaus' hybrid child after a one-night-stand few months earlier, and threatened to kill her and the baby if they didn't join their cause.

Though Sophie led the Mikaelsons to believe that her sole mission was to stage a coup and overthrow Marcel, in reality, she and the witches intended to distract Marcel with Klaus' power play while they tracked down Davina so they could finish the Harvest.

It was also soon revealed that the witches, who practice ancestral magic , were on a deadline to complete the ritual, because if the Harvest was not completed by sacrificing Davina within a year of their first attempt to sacrifice the four Harvest girls, the coven's connection to their ancestors' magic, from which they drew all of their power, would fade to the point that all of the witches would lose their ability to practice magic completely.

At the same time, the witches were convinced that the four sacrificed girls would be resurrected by the Ancestors once the Harvest was complete, and since Monique Deveraux , Sophie's niece and Jane-Anne's daughter, was one of the girls who were sacrificed, Sophie was willing to do whatever it took to complete the Harvest, resurrect the Harvest girls, and ensure that her sister didn't die in vain, even if it meant going up against Marcel and the vampires.

Having witnessed that Marcel whom he thought had died during the vampire massacre of had not only survived, but had taken Klaus' place as king of the city without letting him know, Klaus became determined to reclaim his city and ultimately agreed to join Sophie's cause.

To that end, Klaus apologized to Marcel for his previous actions and rekindled their friendship in order to start dismantling his empire from the inside, with the ultimate goal of becoming the new leader of the vampire community once Marcel's regime had ended.

This eventually worked, because when Marcel—with the help of Rebekah—staged an attack against Klaus, Klaus ended up coming out the victor, even despite the fact that he was outnumbered at least to 1.

Afterward, Klaus reclaimed the compound —which had been the Mikaelsons' residence in the 19th and 20th centuries and had become the vampire headquarters in the years after they fled—and took control of the vampires and the supernatural community at large.

After he had learned of his sister Rebekah and Marcel 's betrayal in , when they summoned Mikael to New Orleans to chase him out of town, Klaus banished Rebekah and sank into a bit of a depression, leaving Elijah to take control of the vampires and the Faction in his absence.

Shortly afterward, Francesca Correa and her brothers , who had revealed themselves to actually be Guerrera werewolves who had been living undercover as humans for decades, staged a coup at the Mikaelson compound, stealing the moonlight stones that Klaus commissioned Genevieve to make for Hayley and the Crescents, triggering their own werewolf curses, and attacking all of the vampires in revenge for how their family was treated by them in the past.

The few vampires who survived the so-called Battle of New Orleans were exiled by the Guerreras to the neighborhood across the river known as Algiers , and the werewolves under their command had orders to kill any vampire who was caught in the French Quarter on sight.

Months later, Marcel, Klaus, Elijah, Josh Rosza , and the newly-turned hybrid Hayley staged a coup of their own, killing all of the Guerrera werewolves, destroying their moonlight rings, and breaking most of their control over the Quarter.

However, the recently- resurrected Esther and Finn Mikaelson possessing the bodies of the witches Cassie and Vincent Griffith quickly filled the power vacuum in the werewolf community, which kept the vampires from fully regaining control of the city.

Despite this, Elijah and Marcel began a partnership and began rebuilding their vampire community in Algiers in the hope that once Esther and Finn were dealt with, they would be able to retake their leadership of the supernatural population of New Orleans.

Finn was eventually neutralized after the werewolves and the vampires formed an alliance and worked with Klaus and Elijah.

After the powerful and ancient witch Dahlia was killed following a lot of bloodshed on all sides, control of the vampire community of New Orleans was once again given to Marcel, who has continued to work with Elijah to replenish their numbers and regain the stronghold of power they once possessed.

It was Marcel's status as a vampire personally turned by Klaus and his reputation for the thriving permanent community of vampires that led the powerful organization The Strix to come to New Orleans and offer him membership into their ranks, which he ultimately joined after passing his initiation.

Since then, The Strix and The Trinity worked together to create a plan to lock away the surviving Original vampires Elijah, Klaus, and Rebekah using a dark object called the Serratura , which would not only allow them to get their revenge against their sires for what Elijah did to The Trinity as well as to protect themselves from a prophecy foretold by a cypher witch in Lucien's employ named Alexis.

In this prophecy, Alexis predicted that the rest of the Originals would be killed, which would ultimately lead to the end of the vampire species as a result of the magical sireline link and the spawn of a mysterious creature known as " The Beast ".

It was foretold that one Original would die at the hands of a friend, one at the hands of a foe, and one at the hands of family members, and this prophecy threatened the very existence of the vampire species, leading The Trinity and The Strix to decide to lock them away to prevent anyone from killing the Originals and thus ensuring their own survival.

However, in time, it was revealed that, while the prophecy was true, the rest of the crisis had been orchestrated by Lucien, who intended to become the Beast from the prophecy in order to become superior to the Originals after The Strix's coven , The Sisters , succeeded in magically breaking the connection between the Originals and their sirelings, allowing him to kill them all once and for all with his newly-fatal bite, which contained the venom of all seven werewolf bloodlines and, as of the end of The Bloody Crown , has no cure.

Though Lucien was ultimately defeated when Freya, channeling Davina's connection to the Ancestors , used their magic to undo the spell that made him the Beast so that Klaus could rip his heart out and kill him for good.

Unfortunately, they didn't foresee the fact that Marcel, too, had been given the second vial of the Beast serum by Vincent after learning what Freya did to Davina in order to fight against the Mikaelsons.

Marcel secretly took the serum, although he pretended to still be considering whether or not to do it, and during an intense argument with Elijah, he was killed by the elder vampire, allowing him to successfully transform into the second Beast.

This gave Marcel the power to retake leadership of New Orleans' supernatural community from the Mikaelsons after summoning all of Klaus' sirelings, who had recently be disconnected from Klaus' sireline, to come take over the Mikaelson Compound from the family.

Marcel went on to steal the leadership by biting Elijah and the recently-resurrected Kol and poisoning Freya, leaving the Mikaelsons dying and weakened and unable to protect Klaus from the rage of his sireline.

This left them with no choice but for Freya to put the three of them and Rebekah who had been cursed by The Strix 's cursed stake months earlier into the same slumber spell Dahlia had put on herself and Freya in the 11th century to buy Hayley time to find cures for all of them.

In order to ensure that Hayley had the time to do this, Klaus voluntarily gave himself up to Marcel and allowed himself to be stabbed in the heart with Papa Tunde's Blade , putting him in a torturous sleep that kept him alive so that Freya could bind all of their siblings to his life-force.

Blood is the main component of a vampire's diet, be it human, animal or vampire blood. According to Rebekah , the reason why vampires crave blood more than anything else was due to the immortality spell used by Esther to create the Original Vampires , which used the blood of a doppelgänger as the catalyst in the process that made her husband and children immortal , transitioning the Mikaelsons into their new lives as Originals.

It was later explained by Atticus Shane that human blood is the key to immortality , which is why vampires, along with the first Immortals Silas and Amara , need to drink it to maintain their eternal life.

If a vampire fails to regularly drink blood, their body will become severely weakened, and will ultimately desiccate into mummification until they are able to get blood into their system.

The longer a vampire abstains from blood, the more likely the vampire will becoming feral until they are eventually unable to resist feeding on whomever they come upon.

In many cases, a vampire who has been starved for a long period and is risking desiccation will eventually become so overwhelmed with hunger that the lose all sense of their humanity and rationality altogether and finally give into their bloodlust.

It has been demonstrated that vampire blood, just as with human and animal blood, can be used to revive a vampire who has been desiccated even if they ordinarily do not partake in the consumption of vampire blood , and it can also help a badly injured vampire heal more quickly if human or animal blood is not available.

However, human blood is most compatible with a vampire's dietary needs, and because of this, the majority of vampires rely on it as their sole food source.

Despite their main food source being referred to as "human blood," this term also extends to the blood of both witches and werewolves who are in their human form, as their blood seems to be functionally identical to that of regular humans.

Due to their acute senses, a vampire can detect whether or not a human has recently consumed alcohol or drugs, because their blood tastes unclean and can leave a vampire with a chemical aftertaste.

This also extends to vervain as well, as vampires who feed on a human who regularly ingests vervain will be burned and weakened upon contact with their blood, which can often be used to the human's advantage.

Due to a vampire's amplified senses and feelings, their hunger cravings are much stronger and harder to control than the mundane hunger for food that they felt when they were humans, and this hunger will often be connected to and amplified by powerful emotions.

Vampires are magically preserved in the physical state that they were in when they died, therefore making a vampires body a freshly dead corpse, though it is reanimated and protected from decay with dark magic.

Vampire's bodies remain in the exact same state as they were just prior to their deaths as humans aside from the injuries or effects of most illnesses that caused their death from an anatomical standpoint, except when it comes to their supernaturally-enhanced abilities and the addition of vampire's true face.

Their true face is a slightly transformed version of their human face, which includes red, blood-shot sclera with protruding veins around the eyes, as well as elongated fangs.

The bite of a vampire is so powerful that it can sever the limbs of both animals and humans, as vampires are known for having extremely sharp and strong teeth.

Similarly, a vampire has human-like physiology, and their bodies continue to function normally as long as they have a steady diet of human blood; for example, their heart still beats to pump the blood they've consumed through their system to maintain their vitality.

Because of this, vampires can eat human food, though it doesn't sustain their life or provide any nutrition like blood does, and their digestive system will continue to process it and produce wastes just as a healthy human's does.

Regardless, many vampires continue to eat regular food for several reasons, including out of human habit, to maintain human appearances in order to prevent their exposure, and to help sublimate their eternal hunger for blood and thereby keep their bloodlust at a manageable level.

Vampires can also become intoxicated by drugs such as alcohol and marijuana just as humans can, although they do have much higher tolerances due to their accelerated healing, which rapidly regenerates the cells damaged by these drugs which causes the sensation of being drunk or high.

In fact, most vampires frequently drink alcohol throughout the day to help them deal with their perpetual hunger, much in the way that some vampires eat human food to help curb their cravings.

Vampires are immune to the majority of human diseases and illnesses. One exception of this rule is cancer, though vampires cannot actually develop it-- they have to have had the cancer prior to being turned, as vampire blood cannot cure it in humans.

These aforementioned vampires continue to have cancer even after their transition is complete, as cancer cells rapidly regenerate in the presence of vampire blood due to the cells being functionally immortal; normal human cells have "suicide buttons" that allow them to die once their organelles have worn out, but cancer cells have no such button, and vampire blood only serves to accelerate the regeneration of cancer cells.

The only known substances that can have a serious negative effect on vampires are vervain and Werewolf Venom. The mystical effect of vampirism is the only thing that keeps vampires and their bodies alive.

If vampirism is removed through the cure to immortality , the body will return to the state of a healthy alive adult so long as the cure remains in their blood.

However, once a vampire is reverted to being a human after ingesting the cure, the cure will remain in their bloodstream, allowing any other vampire who wants to be cured to do so by feeding on the cured vampire's blood to nearly full consumption.

When Silas fed on Katherine 's cure-laced blood, he returned to his previous status as a witch , but it caused a side-effect to be discovered-- should the cure leave the veins of a cured vampire, their bodies will rapidly begin to age to catch up with the time they spent as vampires.

Conversely, if vampirism is stripped away by the Magic Purification Spell , it will physically revert the body to the final state it was in before awakening in transition, leaving it a corpse with the physical damage or illness of whatever it was that originally killed them.

The only exception to this was Alaric Saltzman , who was successfully transformed from an Enhanced Original Vampire into a human as a result of his serious but not absolutely fatal injury being instantly treated by Dr.

The only remaining cure for immortality currently resides in Elena Gilbert 's blood, as the other copy of the cure was destroyed along with the Prison World after the Gemini Coven was murdered.

Similarly, since the Travelers have more or less become extinct, it is unlikely that a magic purification spell could be performed again, making the chances of being cured this way nearly impossible.

She is able to detach her fanged head which flies around in the night looking for blood, typically from pregnant women. She appeared as an attractive woman with long black hair that covered a hole in the back of her neck, with which she sucked the blood of children.

Filling the hole with her hair would drive her off. Corpses had their mouths filled with glass beads, eggs under each armpit, and needles in their palms to prevent them from becoming langsuir.

This description would also fit the Sundel Bolongs. Films like Encounters of the Spooky Kind and Mr. Vampire were released during the jiangshi cinematic boom of the s and s.

In modern fiction, the vampire tends to be depicted as a suave, charismatic villain. Vampire hunting societies still exist, but they are largely formed for social reasons.

In early local press spread rumours that a vampire haunted Highgate Cemetery in London. Amateur vampire hunters flocked in large numbers to the cemetery.

Several books have been written about the case, notably by Sean Manchester, a local man who was among the first to suggest the existence of the " Highgate Vampire " and who later claimed to have exorcised and destroyed a whole nest of vampires in the area.

Local police stated that no such crime had been reported and that the case appears to be an urban legend. In , a physics professor at the University of Central Florida wrote a paper arguing that it is mathematically impossible for vampires to exist, based on geometric progression.

According to the paper, if the first vampire had appeared on 1 January , and it fed once a month which is less often than what is depicted in films and folklore , and every victim turned into a vampire, then within two and a half years the entire human population of the time would have become vampires.

In one of the more notable cases of vampiric entities in the modern age, the chupacabra "goat-sucker" of Puerto Rico and Mexico is said to be a creature that feeds upon the flesh or drinks the blood of domesticated animals , leading some to consider it a kind of vampire.

The "chupacabra hysteria" was frequently associated with deep economic and political crises, particularly during the mids.

In Europe, where much of the vampire folklore originates, the vampire is usually considered a fictitious being; many communities may have embraced the revenant for economic purposes.

In some cases, especially in small localities, beliefs are still rampant and sightings or claims of vampire attacks occur frequently.

In Romania during February , several relatives of Toma Petre feared that he had become a vampire. They dug up his corpse, tore out his heart, burned it, and mixed the ashes with water in order to drink it.

Vampirism and the vampire lifestyle also represent a relevant part of modern day's occultist movements. An alternative collective noun is a "house" of vampires.

Commentators have offered many theories for the origins of vampire beliefs and related mass hysteria. Everything ranging from premature burial to the early ignorance of the body's decomposition cycle after death has been cited as the cause for the belief in vampires.

Paul Barber in his book Vampires, Burial and Death has described that belief in vampires resulted from people of pre-industrial societies attempting to explain the natural, but to them inexplicable, process of death and decomposition.

People sometimes suspected vampirism when a cadaver did not look as they thought a normal corpse should when disinterred. Rates of decomposition vary depending on temperature and soil composition, and many of the signs are little known.

This has led vampire hunters to mistakenly conclude that a dead body had not decomposed at all or, ironically, to interpret signs of decomposition as signs of continued life.

Corpses swell as gases from decomposition accumulate in the torso and the increased pressure forces blood to ooze from the nose and mouth. This causes the body to look "plump", "well-fed", and "ruddy"—changes that are all the more striking if the person was pale or thin in life.

In the Arnold Paole case , an old woman's exhumed corpse was judged by her neighbours to look more plump and healthy than she had ever looked in life.

Darkening of the skin is also caused by decomposition. This could produce a groan-like sound when the gases moved past the vocal cords, or a sound reminiscent of flatulence when they passed through the anus.

The official reporting on the Petar Blagojevich case speaks of "other wild signs which I pass by out of high respect".

After death, the skin and gums lose fluids and contract, exposing the roots of the hair, nails, and teeth, even teeth that were concealed in the jaw.

This can produce the illusion that the hair, nails, and teeth have grown. At a certain stage, the nails fall off and the skin peels away, as reported in the Blagojevich case—the dermis and nail beds emerging underneath were interpreted as "new skin" and "new nails".

It has also been hypothesized that vampire legends were influenced by individuals being buried alive because of shortcomings in the medical knowledge of the time.

In some cases in which people reported sounds emanating from a specific coffin, it was later dug up and fingernail marks were discovered on the inside from the victim trying to escape.

In other cases the person would hit their heads, noses or faces and it would appear that they had been "feeding". An alternate explanation for noise is the bubbling of escaping gases from natural decomposition of bodies.

Folkloric vampirism has been associated with clusters of deaths from unidentifiable or mysterious illnesses, usually within the same family or the same small community.

As with the pneumonic form of bubonic plague , it was associated with breakdown of lung tissue which would cause blood to appear at the lips.

In biochemist David Dolphin proposed a link between the rare blood disorder porphyria and vampire folklore. Noting that the condition is treated by intravenous haem , he suggested that the consumption of large amounts of blood may result in haem being transported somehow across the stomach wall and into the bloodstream.

Thus vampires were merely sufferers of porphyria seeking to replace haem and alleviate their symptoms. The theory has been rebuffed medically as suggestions that porphyria sufferers crave the haem in human blood, or that the consumption of blood might ease the symptoms of porphyria, are based on a misunderstanding of the disease.

Furthermore, Dolphin was noted to have confused fictional bloodsucking vampires with those of folklore, many of whom were not noted to drink blood.

In any case, Dolphin did not go on to publish his work more widely. Rabies has been linked with vampire folklore.

The susceptibility to garlic and light could be due to hypersensitivity, which is a symptom of rabies. The disease can also affect portions of the brain that could lead to disturbance of normal sleep patterns thus becoming nocturnal and hypersexuality.

Legend once said a man was not rabid if he could look at his own reflection an allusion to the legend that vampires have no reflection.

Wolves and bats , which are often associated with vampires, can be carriers of rabies. The disease can also lead to a drive to bite others and to a bloody frothing at the mouth.

In his treatise On the Nightmare , Welsh psychoanalyst Ernest Jones asserted that vampires are symbolic of several unconscious drives and defence mechanisms.

Emotions such as love, guilt, and hate fuel the idea of the return of the dead to the grave. Desiring a reunion with loved ones, mourners may project the idea that the recently dead must in return yearn the same.

From this arises the belief that folkloric vampires and revenants visit relatives, particularly their spouses, first.

In cases where there was unconscious guilt associated with the relationship, the wish for reunion may be subverted by anxiety. This may lead to repression , which Sigmund Freud had linked with the development of morbid dread.

The sexual aspect may or may not be present. People identify with immortal vampires because, by so doing, they overcome, or at least temporarily escape from, their fear of dying.

The innate sexuality of bloodsucking can be seen in its intrinsic connection with cannibalism and folkloric one with incubus -like behaviour.

Many legends report various beings draining other fluids from victims, an unconscious association with semen being obvious.

Finally Jones notes that when more normal aspects of sexuality are repressed, regressed forms may be expressed, in particular sadism ; he felt that oral sadism is integral in vampiric behaviour.

The reinvention of the vampire myth in the modern era is not without political overtones. In his entry for "Vampires" in the Dictionnaire philosophique , Voltaire notices how the midth century coincided with the decline of the folkloric belief in the existence of vampires but that now "there were stock-jobbers, brokers, and men of business, who sucked the blood of the people in broad daylight; but they were not dead, though corrupted.

These true suckers lived not in cemeteries, but in very agreeable palaces". Marx defined capital as "dead labour which, vampire-like, lives only by sucking living labour, and lives the more, the more labour it sucks".

A number of murderers have performed seemingly vampiric rituals upon their victims. Serial killers Peter Kürten and Richard Trenton Chase were both called "vampires" in the tabloids after they were discovered drinking the blood of the people they murdered.

Similarly, in , an unsolved murder case in Stockholm , Sweden was nicknamed the " Vampire murder ", because of the circumstances of the victim's death.

Vampire lifestyle is a term for a contemporary subculture of people, largely within the Goth subculture , who consume the blood of others as a pastime; drawing from the rich recent history of popular culture related to cult symbolism, horror films , the fiction of Anne Rice , and the styles of Victorian England.

Although many cultures have stories about them, vampire bats have only recently become an integral part of the traditional vampire lore.

Vampire bats were integrated into vampire folklore after they were discovered on the South American mainland in the 16th century.

The three species of vampire bats are all endemic to Latin America, and there is no evidence to suggest that they had any Old World relatives within human memory.

It is therefore impossible that the folkloric vampire represents a distorted presentation or memory of the vampire bat. The bats were named after the folkloric vampire rather than vice versa; the Oxford English Dictionary records their folkloric use in English from and the zoological not until The vampire bat's bite is usually not harmful to a person, but the bat has been known to actively feed on humans and large prey such as cattle and often leaves the trademark, two-prong bite mark on its victim's skin.

The literary Dracula transforms into a bat several times in the novel, and vampire bats themselves are mentioned twice in it.

The vampire is now a fixture in popular fiction. Such fiction began with 18th-century poetry and continued with 19th-century short stories, the first and most influential of which was John Polidori 's The Vampyre , featuring the vampire Lord Ruthven.

The vampire theme continued in penny dreadful serial publications such as Varney the Vampire and culminated in the pre-eminent vampire novel in history: Dracula by Bram Stoker, published in Over time, some attributes now regarded as integral became incorporated into the vampire's profile: Much is made of the price of eternal life, namely the incessant need for blood of former equals.

Byron was also credited with the first prose fiction piece concerned with vampires: This was in reality authored by Byron's personal physician, John Polidori , who adapted an enigmatic fragmentary tale of his illustrious patient, "Fragment of a Novel" , also known as "The Burial: The Vampyre was highly successful and the most influential vampire work of the early 19th century.

Varney the Vampire was a landmark popular mid- Victorian era gothic horror story by James Malcolm Rymer and Thomas Peckett Prest , which first appeared from to in a series of pamphlets generally referred to as penny dreadfuls because of their inexpensive price and typically gruesome contents.

It has a distinctly suspenseful style, using vivid imagery to describe the horrifying exploits of Varney. Like Varney before her, the vampire Carmilla is portrayed in a somewhat sympathetic light as the compulsion of her condition is highlighted.

No effort to depict vampires in popular fiction was as influential or as definitive as Bram Stoker 's Dracula The vampiric traits described in Stoker's work merged with and dominated folkloric tradition, eventually evolving into the modern fictional vampire.

Drawing on past works such as The Vampyre and Carmilla , Stoker began to research his new book in the late 19th century, reading works such as The Land Beyond the Forest by Emily Gerard and other books about Transylvania and vampires.

The first chapter of the book was omitted when it was published in , but it was released in as Dracula's Guest. The latter part of the 20th century saw the rise of multi-volume vampire epics.

It also set the trend for seeing vampires as poetic tragic heroes rather than as the more traditional embodiment of evil. This formula was followed in novelist Anne Rice's highly popular and influential Vampire Chronicles — The 21st century brought more examples of vampire fiction, such as J.

Ward 's Black Dagger Brotherhood series, and other highly popular vampire books which appeal to teenagers and young adults.

Such vampiric paranormal romance novels and allied vampiric chick-lit and vampiric occult detective stories are a remarkably popular and ever-expanding contemporary publishing phenomenon.

Hamilton 's erotic Anita Blake: Vampire Hunter series, and Kim Harrison 's The Hollows series, portray the vampire in a variety of new perspectives, some of them unrelated to the original legends.

Vampires in the Twilight series — by Stephenie Meyer ignore the effects of garlic and crosses and are not harmed by sunlight, although it does reveal their supernatural status.

Considered one of the preeminent figures of the classic horror film, the vampire has proven to be a rich subject for the film and gaming industries.

Dracula is a major character in more films than any other but Sherlock Holmes , and many early films were either based on the novel Dracula or closely derived from it.

These included the German silent film Nosferatu , directed by F. Murnau and featuring the first film portrayal of Dracula—although names and characters were intended to mimic Dracula ' s, Murnau could not obtain permission to do so from Stoker's widow, and had to alter many aspects of the film.

The decade saw several more vampire films, most notably Dracula's Daughter in The legend of the vampire continued through the film industry when Dracula was reincarnated in the pertinent Hammer Horror series of films, starring Christopher Lee as the Count.

The successful Dracula starring Lee was followed by seven sequels. Lee returned as Dracula in all but two of these and became well known in the role.

Several films featured the characterisation of a female, often lesbian, vampire such as Hammer Horror's The Vampire Lovers , based on Carmilla , though the plotlines still revolved around a central evil vampire character.

The Gothic soap opera Dark Shadows , on American television from to and produced by Dan Curtis , featured the vampire character Barnabas Collins , portrayed by Canadian actor Jonathan Frid , which proved partly responsible for making the series one of the most popular of its type, amassing a total of 1, episodes in its nearly five-year run.

The pilot for the later Dan Curtis television series Kolchak: Later films showed more diversity in plotline, with some focusing on the vampire-hunter, such as Blade in the Marvel Comics ' Blade films and the film Buffy the Vampire Slayer.

Still others showed the vampire as protagonist, such as 's The Hunger , 's Interview with the Vampire and its indirect sequel of sorts Queen of the Damned , and the series Moonlight.

The film Bram Stoker's Dracula became the then-highest grossing vampire film ever. This increase of interest in vampiric plotlines led to the vampire being depicted in films such as Underworld and Van Helsing , and the Russian Night Watch and a TV miniseries remake of Salem's Lot , both from The series Blood Ties premiered on Lifetime Television in , featuring a character portrayed as Henry Fitzroy, illegitimate son of Henry VIII of England turned vampire, in modern-day Toronto , with a female former Toronto detective in the starring role.

The characterization of Tepes as a vampire, however, is a distinctly Western one; in Romania, he is viewed not as a blood-drinking sadist but as a national hero who defended his empire from the Ottoman Turks.

The vampires most people are familiar with such as Dracula are revenants — human corpses that are said to return from the grave to harm the living; these vampires have Slavic origins only a few hundred years old.

But other, older, versions of the vampire were not thought to be human at all but instead supernatural, possibly demonic, entities that did not take human form.

Matthew Beresford, author of " From Demons to Dracula: The Creation of the Modern Vampire Myth " Reaktion, , notes, "There are clear foundations for the vampire in the ancient world, and it is impossible to prove when the myth first arose.

There are suggestions that the vampire was born out of sorcery in ancient Egypt, a demon summoned into this world from some other. There are Asian vampires, such as the Chinese jiangshi pronounced chong-shee , evil spirits that attack people and drain their life energy; the blood-drinking Wrathful Deities that appear in the "Tibetan Book of the Dead," and many others.

While most people can name several elements of vampire lore, there are no firmly established characteristics. Some vampires are said to be able to turn into bats or wolves; others can't.

Some are said not to cast a reflection, but others do. Holy water and sunlight are said to repel or kill some vampires, but not others.

The one universal characteristic is the draining of a vital bodily fluid, typically blood. One of the reasons that vampires make such successful literary figures is that they have a rich and varied history and folklore.

Writers can play with the "rules" while adding, subtracting or changing them to fit whatever story they have in mind.

Finding a vampire is not always easy: The boy should be dressed in white, placed upon the horse, and the pair set loose in a graveyard at midday.

Watch the horse wander around, and whichever grave is nearest the horse when it finally stops is a vampire's grave — or it might just have something edible nearby; take your pick.

Interest and belief in revenants surged in the Middle Ages in Europe. Though in most modern stories the classic way to become a vampire is to be bitten by one, that is a relatively new twist.

In his book " Vampires, Burial, and Death: Folklore and Reality " Yale, , folklorist Paul Barber noted that centuries ago, "Often potential revenants can be identified at birth, usually by some abnormality, some defect, as when a child is born with teeth.

Similarly suspicious are children born with an extra nipple in Romania, for example ; with a lack of cartilage in the nose, or a split lower lip in Russia … When a child is born with a red caul, or amniotic membrane, covering its head, this was regarded throughout much of Europe as presumptive evidence that it is destined to return from the dead.

Vampires -

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De vampier heeft een weerzin tegen knoflook, zilver en christelijke symbolen. Een vampier wordt gedood door onthoofding, verbranding, een zilveren kogel of een houten staak door het hart.

Het wezen is ook vatbaar voor christelijke vormen van duiveluitdrijving. In Bulgarije zijn honderden geraamtes opgegraven die doorboord zijn met een staak, in werden nog twee gevonden in Sozopol.

De Slavische vampier is vaak een lelijk, hersenloos wezen dat meer op een dier dan op een mens lijkt. Hij is een vervloekte overledene uit een lage sociale klasse.

Tevens is hij nauw verwant aan de weerwolf. Er zijn echter ook "zorgzame" vampiers in de Slavische folklore.

Zo is er een verhaal over een moeder die enkele uren na de bevalling sterft. Het kind blijft leven, alhoewel het geen melk drinkt van de oude vrouw die voor hem komt zorgen.

Na maanden gaat de vader 's nachts kijken wat er aan de hand is, hij verstopt een kaars in een aarden pot. Hij ziet een vage figuur binnen komen en het kind wordt opgepakt.

De vader neemt de pot van de kaars en ziet de dode moeder haar levende zoon zogen. Als ze het licht ziet, kijkt ze verdrietig op en loopt zonder om te kijken de deur uit.

De vader rent naar de wieg en ziet dat zijn baby dood is. Volgens het volksgeloof voeden de kleedvreters zich met de eigen lijkwade of doden masker en spraken een vloek uit om de pest te verspreiden, zodat er nog meer 'ondoden' zouden ontstaan.

Het eiland werd destijds gebruikt als sanatorium. Er was een baksteen tussen de kaken van de vrouw gestopt, zodat deze "vampier" zou verhongeren.

In een Toscaans sprookje wordt een vampier een wolkenmonster genoemd. Ook in de huidige tijd is er nog een geloof in vampiers. Zo wordt in november bekend dat de president van Malawi de bevolking belooft vampiers hard aan te pakken.

Er zijn grote groepen mensen die op vampiers jagen in het land aanwezig, waardoor de VN besloten heeft om zijn medewerkers terug te trekken uit het land.

De geruchten over vampiers komen uit Mozambique. Bloed is in het menselijk bewustzijn al vanaf de vroegste tijden geassocieerd met levenskracht ; als een lichaam veel bloed verliest, verliest het immers ook het leven.

De romantische interesse voor alles wat met folklore en bizarre hartstochten te maken heeft, zorgde ervoor dat de vampier in zijn intrede deed in de literatuur.

Met het verhaal The Vampyre van John Polidori deed de charmante, aristocratische vampier zijn intrede. Wellicht omdat het jaar zonder zomer was, bracht men de avonden vooral binnenshuis door.

Bij wijze van tijdverdrijf daagden de schrijvers elkaar uit om spookverhalen te verzinnen. Het leverde twee invloedrijke verhalen op: Polidori werkte het verhaal pas uit toen duidelijk werd dat Byron daar zelf geen zin in had.

Bij wijze van plagerij gaf Polidori zijn vampier diverse karaktereigenschappen van Byron mee: Vrijwel direct na de publicatie in was The Vampyre een succes, voornamelijk doordat het aanvankelijk aan Byron werd toegeschreven.

Er werden in de jaren diverse theaterbewerkingen van het stuk gemaakt. Verschillende schrijvers, waaronder Alexandre Dumas schreven hun variant op het verhaal of maakten een vervolg.

De aristocratische of Byroneske vampier was een bekend verschijnsel geworden in de westerse literatuur. Bram Stokers Dracula is ongetwijfeld het bekendste Byroneske vampierverhaal.

De hoofdpersoon Graaf Dracula vertoont sterke verwantschap met Lord Ruthven. In het boek gebruikt Stoker ook het woord Nosferatu voor vampier met de bewering dat het een oud Roemeens woord is.

Het is een verhaspeling van het Roemeense woord nesuferitu dat zoveel als "demon" of "duivels persoon" betekent; nosferatu daarentegen is geen bestaand Roemeens woord.

De Amerikaanse Anne Rice is een bekend hedendaags auteur die romans over vampiers en andere bovennatuurlijke wezens schrijft, zoals Interview with the Vampire uit De Duitse auteur Markus Heitz is aan andere bekende schrijver die een aantal vampierromans heeft geschreven.

Hiervan is De kinderen van Judas zijn eerste, tevens bekendste vampierroman. In schilderde Edvard Munch het werk Liefde en Pijn , waarop een vrouw zich troostend over een man ontfermt.

Door een misinterpretatie van de kunstcriticus Stanislav Przybyszewski werd het schilderij bekend als De Vampier. Michael Fitzgerald , De eerste algemeen bekende speelfilm waarin een vampier voorkomt is het op Stokers boek gebaseerde Nosferatu, eine Symphonie des Grauens van Friedrich Wilhelm Murnau uit , met Max Schreck in de rol van een afzichtelijke vampier.

Voor een Amerikaanse theaterproductie uit kreeg Dracula voor het eerst de beschikking over een zwarte cape met een grote kraag. Het was hierdoor voor de acteur mogelijk om, wanneer hij zijn kraag opzette en zijn rug naar het publiek keerde, een soort verdwijntruc op te voeren tegen de donkere achtergrond van het toneel.

Het kledingstuk werd, misschien vanwege de associatie met vleermuisvleugels, tot een vast onderdeel van de vampiersgarderobe. Hij werd de rest van zijn leven vereenzelvigd met de rol zie: Op zijn eigen verzoek werd hij na zijn dood in in vampierskostuum begraven.

Vanaf speelde Christopher Lee negen maal de rol van vampier in een reeks Draculafilms. In verscheen Plan 9 from Outer Space , Vampira speelde hierin een rol.

Blueszanger Screamin' Jay Hawkins was waarschijnlijk de eerste popartiest die een vampier-act opvoerde. Andere artiesten met vampier-invloeden waren ZZ en de Maskers , die in een hit scoorden met Dracula , en eind jaren 60 de curieuze god-of-hellfire Arthur Brown.

Vanaf de jaren zeventig werden vampier-acts in de popmuziek grimmiger. Ze waren voor een belangrijk deel bedoeld om te choqueren.

Het verschijnsel werd onder andere gebruikt door Alice Cooper in de jaren zeventig, diverse gothicbands in de jaren tachtig en Marilyn Manson in de jaren negentig.

In het kinderprogramma Sesamstraat leerden de kijkertjes ondertussen tellen onder leiding van een aristocratische vampier genaamd Graaf Tel Engels: Wel heeft hij een monomane belangstelling voor getallen.

Stephen King bracht in het boek Salem's Lot uit, in volgde de Nederlandse vertaling Bezeten stad. Dit verhaal werd meerdere keren verfilmd; Rob Lowe , Donald Sutherland en Rutger Hauer speelden hoofdrollen in de serie uit Het boek Interview with the Vampire van Anne Rice en de daaropvolgende delen van The Vampire Chronicles zorgden voor een heropleving van het vampiergenre.

Het boek werd in verfilmd; Interview with the Vampire: In verscheen De Silmarillion met daarin de vampier-boodschapper Thuringwethil en de strip De maffe maniak waarin graaf Drakuul een rol speelt.

In verscheen De vampier van Drakenburg en in kwam Graaf Duckula voor het eerst op tv in Nederland. In werd het rollenspel Vampire: The Masquerade door White Wolf uitgegeven.

Hierin spelen sociale interacties zoals haat en liefde , vertrouwen en verraad een grote rol; en daarnaast moeten de vampiers de eeuwige strijd aangaan tussen het menselijke in hen en het duistere, beestachtige aspect van hun nieuwe natuur.

In kwam Bram Stoker's Dracula uit. In verscheen De vettige vampiers. In de serie treden ook "goede" vampiers en andere mythologische wezens op.

De vampier ' Angel ' kreeg zelfs een eigen spin-offserie. Angel heeft zijn ziel teruggekregen en strijdt tegen het kwaad. In verscheen Blade , een film over een vampierjager zelf een halfbloed-vampier.

In de film wordt onderscheid gemaakt tussen volbloed en halfbloed vampiers. De film kreeg twee vervolgen: Blade II en Blade: De televisieserie Moonlight gaat over Mick St.

Hij strijdt nu tegen het kwaad; overigens kan een vampier in deze serie wel op digitale foto's en film worden vastgelegd. In verscheen Underworld , waarin de geschiedenis van vampiers en weerwolven lycans centraal staat.

Als vervolg verschenen Underworld: Rise of the Lycans en Underworld: In verscheen Van Helsing. In verscheen Vampire knight en in De vampier en The Thirst.

In kwam True Blood op tv. Ook Merho maakt regelmatig gebruik van vampiers, in zijn stripreeks De Kiekeboes. In The Twilight-Saga spelen verschillende vampiers mee.

In de boeken van Stephenie Meyer hebben de vampiers andere eigenschappen dan de mythische vampier. Alle boeken zijn ondertussen ook verfilmd.

De boekenserie The Vampire Diaries , geschreven door L. Smith , verscheen ook als televisieserie zie The Vampire Diaries.

Scott Snyder probeert de vampier te heroveren op de romantische film met hulp van Stephen King. Filling the hole with her hair would drive her off.

Corpses had their mouths filled with glass beads, eggs under each armpit, and needles in their palms to prevent them from becoming langsuir.

This description would also fit the Sundel Bolongs. Films like Encounters of the Spooky Kind and Mr. Vampire were released during the jiangshi cinematic boom of the s and s.

In modern fiction, the vampire tends to be depicted as a suave, charismatic villain. Vampire hunting societies still exist, but they are largely formed for social reasons.

In early local press spread rumours that a vampire haunted Highgate Cemetery in London. Amateur vampire hunters flocked in large numbers to the cemetery.

Several books have been written about the case, notably by Sean Manchester, a local man who was among the first to suggest the existence of the " Highgate Vampire " and who later claimed to have exorcised and destroyed a whole nest of vampires in the area.

Local police stated that no such crime had been reported and that the case appears to be an urban legend. In , a physics professor at the University of Central Florida wrote a paper arguing that it is mathematically impossible for vampires to exist, based on geometric progression.

According to the paper, if the first vampire had appeared on 1 January , and it fed once a month which is less often than what is depicted in films and folklore , and every victim turned into a vampire, then within two and a half years the entire human population of the time would have become vampires.

In one of the more notable cases of vampiric entities in the modern age, the chupacabra "goat-sucker" of Puerto Rico and Mexico is said to be a creature that feeds upon the flesh or drinks the blood of domesticated animals , leading some to consider it a kind of vampire.

The "chupacabra hysteria" was frequently associated with deep economic and political crises, particularly during the mids. In Europe, where much of the vampire folklore originates, the vampire is usually considered a fictitious being; many communities may have embraced the revenant for economic purposes.

In some cases, especially in small localities, beliefs are still rampant and sightings or claims of vampire attacks occur frequently.

In Romania during February , several relatives of Toma Petre feared that he had become a vampire. They dug up his corpse, tore out his heart, burned it, and mixed the ashes with water in order to drink it.

Vampirism and the vampire lifestyle also represent a relevant part of modern day's occultist movements. An alternative collective noun is a "house" of vampires.

Commentators have offered many theories for the origins of vampire beliefs and related mass hysteria. Everything ranging from premature burial to the early ignorance of the body's decomposition cycle after death has been cited as the cause for the belief in vampires.

Paul Barber in his book Vampires, Burial and Death has described that belief in vampires resulted from people of pre-industrial societies attempting to explain the natural, but to them inexplicable, process of death and decomposition.

People sometimes suspected vampirism when a cadaver did not look as they thought a normal corpse should when disinterred. Rates of decomposition vary depending on temperature and soil composition, and many of the signs are little known.

This has led vampire hunters to mistakenly conclude that a dead body had not decomposed at all or, ironically, to interpret signs of decomposition as signs of continued life.

Corpses swell as gases from decomposition accumulate in the torso and the increased pressure forces blood to ooze from the nose and mouth.

This causes the body to look "plump", "well-fed", and "ruddy"—changes that are all the more striking if the person was pale or thin in life.

In the Arnold Paole case , an old woman's exhumed corpse was judged by her neighbours to look more plump and healthy than she had ever looked in life.

Darkening of the skin is also caused by decomposition. This could produce a groan-like sound when the gases moved past the vocal cords, or a sound reminiscent of flatulence when they passed through the anus.

The official reporting on the Petar Blagojevich case speaks of "other wild signs which I pass by out of high respect".

After death, the skin and gums lose fluids and contract, exposing the roots of the hair, nails, and teeth, even teeth that were concealed in the jaw.

This can produce the illusion that the hair, nails, and teeth have grown. At a certain stage, the nails fall off and the skin peels away, as reported in the Blagojevich case—the dermis and nail beds emerging underneath were interpreted as "new skin" and "new nails".

It has also been hypothesized that vampire legends were influenced by individuals being buried alive because of shortcomings in the medical knowledge of the time.

In some cases in which people reported sounds emanating from a specific coffin, it was later dug up and fingernail marks were discovered on the inside from the victim trying to escape.

In other cases the person would hit their heads, noses or faces and it would appear that they had been "feeding". An alternate explanation for noise is the bubbling of escaping gases from natural decomposition of bodies.

Folkloric vampirism has been associated with clusters of deaths from unidentifiable or mysterious illnesses, usually within the same family or the same small community.

As with the pneumonic form of bubonic plague , it was associated with breakdown of lung tissue which would cause blood to appear at the lips.

In biochemist David Dolphin proposed a link between the rare blood disorder porphyria and vampire folklore. Noting that the condition is treated by intravenous haem , he suggested that the consumption of large amounts of blood may result in haem being transported somehow across the stomach wall and into the bloodstream.

Thus vampires were merely sufferers of porphyria seeking to replace haem and alleviate their symptoms.

The theory has been rebuffed medically as suggestions that porphyria sufferers crave the haem in human blood, or that the consumption of blood might ease the symptoms of porphyria, are based on a misunderstanding of the disease.

Furthermore, Dolphin was noted to have confused fictional bloodsucking vampires with those of folklore, many of whom were not noted to drink blood.

In any case, Dolphin did not go on to publish his work more widely. Rabies has been linked with vampire folklore. The susceptibility to garlic and light could be due to hypersensitivity, which is a symptom of rabies.

The disease can also affect portions of the brain that could lead to disturbance of normal sleep patterns thus becoming nocturnal and hypersexuality.

Legend once said a man was not rabid if he could look at his own reflection an allusion to the legend that vampires have no reflection.

Wolves and bats , which are often associated with vampires, can be carriers of rabies. The disease can also lead to a drive to bite others and to a bloody frothing at the mouth.

In his treatise On the Nightmare , Welsh psychoanalyst Ernest Jones asserted that vampires are symbolic of several unconscious drives and defence mechanisms.

Emotions such as love, guilt, and hate fuel the idea of the return of the dead to the grave. Desiring a reunion with loved ones, mourners may project the idea that the recently dead must in return yearn the same.

From this arises the belief that folkloric vampires and revenants visit relatives, particularly their spouses, first.

In cases where there was unconscious guilt associated with the relationship, the wish for reunion may be subverted by anxiety.

This may lead to repression , which Sigmund Freud had linked with the development of morbid dread.

The sexual aspect may or may not be present. People identify with immortal vampires because, by so doing, they overcome, or at least temporarily escape from, their fear of dying.

The innate sexuality of bloodsucking can be seen in its intrinsic connection with cannibalism and folkloric one with incubus -like behaviour.

Many legends report various beings draining other fluids from victims, an unconscious association with semen being obvious.

Finally Jones notes that when more normal aspects of sexuality are repressed, regressed forms may be expressed, in particular sadism ; he felt that oral sadism is integral in vampiric behaviour.

The reinvention of the vampire myth in the modern era is not without political overtones. In his entry for "Vampires" in the Dictionnaire philosophique , Voltaire notices how the midth century coincided with the decline of the folkloric belief in the existence of vampires but that now "there were stock-jobbers, brokers, and men of business, who sucked the blood of the people in broad daylight; but they were not dead, though corrupted.

These true suckers lived not in cemeteries, but in very agreeable palaces". Marx defined capital as "dead labour which, vampire-like, lives only by sucking living labour, and lives the more, the more labour it sucks".

A number of murderers have performed seemingly vampiric rituals upon their victims. Serial killers Peter Kürten and Richard Trenton Chase were both called "vampires" in the tabloids after they were discovered drinking the blood of the people they murdered.

Similarly, in , an unsolved murder case in Stockholm , Sweden was nicknamed the " Vampire murder ", because of the circumstances of the victim's death.

Vampire lifestyle is a term for a contemporary subculture of people, largely within the Goth subculture , who consume the blood of others as a pastime; drawing from the rich recent history of popular culture related to cult symbolism, horror films , the fiction of Anne Rice , and the styles of Victorian England.

Although many cultures have stories about them, vampire bats have only recently become an integral part of the traditional vampire lore.

Vampire bats were integrated into vampire folklore after they were discovered on the South American mainland in the 16th century.

The three species of vampire bats are all endemic to Latin America, and there is no evidence to suggest that they had any Old World relatives within human memory.

It is therefore impossible that the folkloric vampire represents a distorted presentation or memory of the vampire bat. The bats were named after the folkloric vampire rather than vice versa; the Oxford English Dictionary records their folkloric use in English from and the zoological not until The vampire bat's bite is usually not harmful to a person, but the bat has been known to actively feed on humans and large prey such as cattle and often leaves the trademark, two-prong bite mark on its victim's skin.

The literary Dracula transforms into a bat several times in the novel, and vampire bats themselves are mentioned twice in it. The vampire is now a fixture in popular fiction.

Such fiction began with 18th-century poetry and continued with 19th-century short stories, the first and most influential of which was John Polidori 's The Vampyre , featuring the vampire Lord Ruthven.

The vampire theme continued in penny dreadful serial publications such as Varney the Vampire and culminated in the pre-eminent vampire novel in history: Dracula by Bram Stoker, published in Over time, some attributes now regarded as integral became incorporated into the vampire's profile: Much is made of the price of eternal life, namely the incessant need for blood of former equals.

Byron was also credited with the first prose fiction piece concerned with vampires: This was in reality authored by Byron's personal physician, John Polidori , who adapted an enigmatic fragmentary tale of his illustrious patient, "Fragment of a Novel" , also known as "The Burial: The Vampyre was highly successful and the most influential vampire work of the early 19th century.

Varney the Vampire was a landmark popular mid- Victorian era gothic horror story by James Malcolm Rymer and Thomas Peckett Prest , which first appeared from to in a series of pamphlets generally referred to as penny dreadfuls because of their inexpensive price and typically gruesome contents.

It has a distinctly suspenseful style, using vivid imagery to describe the horrifying exploits of Varney. Like Varney before her, the vampire Carmilla is portrayed in a somewhat sympathetic light as the compulsion of her condition is highlighted.

No effort to depict vampires in popular fiction was as influential or as definitive as Bram Stoker 's Dracula The vampiric traits described in Stoker's work merged with and dominated folkloric tradition, eventually evolving into the modern fictional vampire.

Drawing on past works such as The Vampyre and Carmilla , Stoker began to research his new book in the late 19th century, reading works such as The Land Beyond the Forest by Emily Gerard and other books about Transylvania and vampires.

The first chapter of the book was omitted when it was published in , but it was released in as Dracula's Guest. The latter part of the 20th century saw the rise of multi-volume vampire epics.

It also set the trend for seeing vampires as poetic tragic heroes rather than as the more traditional embodiment of evil.

This formula was followed in novelist Anne Rice's highly popular and influential Vampire Chronicles — The 21st century brought more examples of vampire fiction, such as J.

Ward 's Black Dagger Brotherhood series, and other highly popular vampire books which appeal to teenagers and young adults.

Such vampiric paranormal romance novels and allied vampiric chick-lit and vampiric occult detective stories are a remarkably popular and ever-expanding contemporary publishing phenomenon.

Hamilton 's erotic Anita Blake: Vampire Hunter series, and Kim Harrison 's The Hollows series, portray the vampire in a variety of new perspectives, some of them unrelated to the original legends.

Vampires in the Twilight series — by Stephenie Meyer ignore the effects of garlic and crosses and are not harmed by sunlight, although it does reveal their supernatural status.

Considered one of the preeminent figures of the classic horror film, the vampire has proven to be a rich subject for the film and gaming industries.

Dracula is a major character in more films than any other but Sherlock Holmes , and many early films were either based on the novel Dracula or closely derived from it.

These included the German silent film Nosferatu , directed by F. Murnau and featuring the first film portrayal of Dracula—although names and characters were intended to mimic Dracula ' s, Murnau could not obtain permission to do so from Stoker's widow, and had to alter many aspects of the film.

The decade saw several more vampire films, most notably Dracula's Daughter in The legend of the vampire continued through the film industry when Dracula was reincarnated in the pertinent Hammer Horror series of films, starring Christopher Lee as the Count.

The successful Dracula starring Lee was followed by seven sequels. Lee returned as Dracula in all but two of these and became well known in the role.

Several films featured the characterisation of a female, often lesbian, vampire such as Hammer Horror's The Vampire Lovers , based on Carmilla , though the plotlines still revolved around a central evil vampire character.

The Gothic soap opera Dark Shadows , on American television from to and produced by Dan Curtis , featured the vampire character Barnabas Collins , portrayed by Canadian actor Jonathan Frid , which proved partly responsible for making the series one of the most popular of its type, amassing a total of 1, episodes in its nearly five-year run.

The pilot for the later Dan Curtis television series Kolchak: Later films showed more diversity in plotline, with some focusing on the vampire-hunter, such as Blade in the Marvel Comics ' Blade films and the film Buffy the Vampire Slayer.

Still others showed the vampire as protagonist, such as 's The Hunger , 's Interview with the Vampire and its indirect sequel of sorts Queen of the Damned , and the series Moonlight.

The film Bram Stoker's Dracula became the then-highest grossing vampire film ever. This increase of interest in vampiric plotlines led to the vampire being depicted in films such as Underworld and Van Helsing , and the Russian Night Watch and a TV miniseries remake of Salem's Lot , both from The series Blood Ties premiered on Lifetime Television in , featuring a character portrayed as Henry Fitzroy, illegitimate son of Henry VIII of England turned vampire, in modern-day Toronto , with a female former Toronto detective in the starring role.

It featured an unconventional trio of a vampire, a werewolf and a ghost who are sharing a flat in Bristol.

The continuing popularity of the vampire theme has been ascribed to a combination of two factors: The role-playing game Vampire: The Masquerade has been influential upon modern vampire fiction and elements of its terminology, such as embrace and sire , appear in contemporary fiction.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Vampire disambiguation. List of vampires in folklore and mythology.

List of vampire traits in folklore and fiction. Garlic, Bibles, crucifixes, rosaries, holy water, and mirrors have all been seen in various folkloric traditions as means of warding against or identifying vampires.

Vampire folklore by region. From Nosferatu to Interview with the Vampire pp. Archived from the original on 26 January Retrieved 26 January Oxford English Dictionary 2nd ed.

Vampires as Creatures of the Imagination: Hirzel —" in German. Archived from the original on 26 September Archived from the original on 14 June Retrieved 13 June Mify Narodov Mira in Russian.

Archived from the original on 25 February Retrieved 28 February Archived from the original on 12 January The Reader's Digest Book of strange stories, amazing facts: Testamento del paisa in Spanish 7th ed.

An Encyclopaedia of Occultism. Witchcraft and Magic in the Nordic Middle Ages. University of Pennsylvania Press. Die Bestattung in Litauen in der vorgeschichtlichen Zeit in German.

Journal of the Gypsy Lore Society. Mitteilungen der Schlesischen Gesellschaft für Volkskunde in German. Treatise on the Apparitions of Spirits and on Vampires or Revenants: The Element Encyclopedia of Vampires.

Aberglaube und Stafrecht in German. Handwörterbuch des deutschen Aberglaubens in German. Wiener Völkerkundliche Mitteilungen in German.

News , archived ; also by Reuters, published under the headline "Researchers find remains that support medieval 'vampire'" in The Australian , 13 March , archived with photo scroll down.

In Search of Dracula. Vikram and The Vampire: Vampires, Einstein and Jewish Folklore". Retrieved 5 December Transactions and Proceedings of the American Philological Association.

Critical and Historical Studies on the Preternatural. The New Annotated Dracula. Retrieved 20 November The encyclopedia of the undead. Visible Ink Press, De servorum Dei beatificatione et sanctorum canonizatione.

Archives Internationals d'Histoire des Sciences. The Evolution of Modern Vampirism". Turismo, Mitologia Chilota, leyendas in Spanish. Ediciones de la Voz de Chiloe.

American Journal of Physical Anthropology. Stories and Studies of Strange Things. Houghton, Mifflin and Company. Creatures of Philippine Lower Mythology.

The Religious System of China. Jiangshi Films in a Transnational Context". Draculas, Vampires, and Other Undead Forms.

Pullout From Southern Malawi". The New York Times. Archived from the original on A Yearly Journal of Folklore Studies The politics of contemporary enchantment.

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